The “Big Freeze” is how scientists theorize that the universe will end. It is a known fact that the universe has a fixed amount of energy, so the theory states that the universe will begin to decrease once this energy begins to run out. This energy is in the form of heat, related to all physical processes, and in turn produced by the movement of energy particles. The infinite expansion of the universe, coupled with a gradual slowing of this movement will eventually make it stop completely, leading to a thermal death that will end the universe.
According to solipsism, nothing can be verified except the existence of the mind. Although it seems foolish at first, the truth is that it is impossible to verify the existence of something, except your own conscience. Consider all the plausible dreams you have had in your life for a moment. Could not it be possible that everything you have seen in your life is nothing more than an elaborate dream? You would answer saying that the family or the existence of friends can be verified by touching them, but again people who have taken acid, for example, report having seen (and touched) their hallucinations. It is not assumed that these are real!
Idealism is the belief that all things exist purely in the mind of a person.To George Berkely, the famous idealist philosopher, his ideas were reprimanded by a man who closed his eyes, kicked a stone and told him: “I refute him that way”. The point was that if the stone only existed in his mind, he would not have been able to kick it. Berkeley’s rebuttal of what the man told him was a bit disturbing when viewed from a modern perspective: he said there was an omnipotent and all-powerful God who perceived everyone and everything simultaneously.
7. Plato and the logos
Plato is possibly the most famous philosopher in history. He affirmed that there is a world of perfect “forms” in addition to the world with which we are all familiar, adding that all the things we see around us are simply shadows of them. In addition, he said that studying philosophy would allow people to glimpse the original things. Plato also affirmed that everything in this world is made of a single substance. Modern science has discovered that this theory is not really far from the truth.
Time is something that we take for granted, but the “presentist” philosophers argue that there is neither past nor future, only that the present exists at a given moment. According to a great Buddhist scholar, Fyodor Shcherbatskoy: “Everything past is unreal, every future is unreal, all imagined, absent, mental. . . It is unreal. . . Ultimately, the real is only the present moment of physical efficiency. “
In sharp contrast to presenteeism, as described above, the philosophical theory of eternalism asserts that time actually has many different layers, comparable to a sponge cake. All layers exist at the same time, but a given layer that an observer sees depends entirely on his position (perspective). In other words, World War II and Lady Gaga exist at the same time, but they can only be seen from certain points. This vision leads to a future without deterministic hopes. In addition, free will is no more than an illusion.
4. Brain in the bucket
Imagine for a moment that human beings are nothing but brains in vats, with our perceptions being manipulated by extraterrestrials or evil scientists. The truth is that we have no way to refute this. This notion is a modern twist on the problem of the Evil Devil, as devised by the French philosopher René Descartes. He also theorized that we can not prove the existence of anything other than our conscience. The Matrix movie trilogy is based on this notion, but unfortunately, there is no “red pill” form in real life.
3. Theory of the multiverse
Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past decade, you’ve probably heard about the multiverse or parallel universe theory. It is said that the theoretical parallel worlds that make up this theory are very similar to ours, although with small differences. According to the theory, there is an infinite number of these parallel worlds or universes.The implications for us are that you may have been killed by dinosaurs in one world, while you could be a powerful dictator with Kim Jong Un’s moral compass in another, and so on.
2. Fictional realism
Fictional realism is an extension of the multiverse theory and it is exciting. Theorizes that a fictional character like Superman could exist in another universe, like many other superheroes and fictional characters.
If you have ever wondered what happens with the things behind your back, the philosophers have come to the simple conclusion that they disappear, or not at all. Phenomenalist philosophers believe that things exist only insofar as they can be perceived. In other words, your cheese sandwich for lunch only exists if you know it exists. This implies that a tree that falls into a deserted forest, for example, with no one around to hear it or see it happen, does not really exist at all. It is not perceived = it does not exist, according to phenomenalism.